Distinguishing between Beginners & Experts

When differentiating between the needs of beginners and experts, it is useful to discuss command vectors and working sets. A working set is a “subset of commands and features” that a perpetual intermediate would memorize (Cooper et al., 2007, p. 552). Command vectors “are distinct techniques” through which users “issue instructions to the program” (2007, p. 551). Some examples are drop-down menus, toolbar controls, and pop-up menus. Good programs provide “multiple command vectors” where functions can be performed by going to any number of command vectors depending on the user’s ability (2007, p. 551). Immediate vectors allow for instant function while pedagogic vectors provide intermediate steps. A pedagogic vector is filled with world information, and